Summary Synthesis

(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) by Jamacab

I created my interdisciplinary program Juvenile Justice and Mental Health, based on the idea that I wanted to work with Juveniles and I had an interest for Criminal Justice and Psychology. Originally when I began school, I wanted to be a Social Worker but I realized quickly in my first semester that I wanted to do something that pertained more with Criminal Justice and Psychology because those were the fields that I was most interested in. When I transferred to Plymouth State University, I didn’t like being just a Psychology Major and I had felt that it was already too late to switch programs until my friend came along and told me about Interdisciplinary Studies. I loved the idea of combining multiple disciplines into one program and taking charge of your own education.

Through Introduction to Interdisciplinary Studies, I learned what it meant to be a interdisciplinary student and also read multiple article within our online textbook Interdisciplinary Studies: A connected Learning Approach such as, The Big Terms that goes over the terms needed to understand our major and Why Openness in Education? that opened my eyes to the fact of how much students were actually spending on textbooks a year.

Moving along to this semester and taking Interdisciplinary Studies Senior Seminar, and having to do a Applied Project and Research Article was rough but fulfilling at the same time. Out of the two, my Applied project was the easiest to do because it was something close to my heart. For my Applied Project, I decided to do care kits for homeless people and donated them to the Bridge House just in time for Thanksgiving. I decided to do this project because I wanted to do something that would benefit the community and I also wanted to get youth involved in the process. I successful had to youth volunteers that helped to the care kits and it was a good way to give back to the community. Not only for me but the two young men that were involved too. This contributed to my education because I got do something that felt natural to me and related to the field I want to work with. I got to involve youth that I work with as well and got to see that we can make a difference with such a small gesture.

My Research Article was a rough one because I kept changing my topic. I ended up doing a Research Article on How Much Do We Really Know About Juvenile Gangs? and this article was to bring awareness on an issues that not many people are familiar with. Part of the article is interviews of people that were and/ or still are in gangs and their stories on how they got involved. This topic is important to me because like said before, not many people know much about this topic and it’s a good way to bring awareness along with it’s something that relates to my field of interest. This contributes to my education because it gives me an inside of what I should expect when furthering my education.

I’m very happy that I decided to switch into Interdisciplinary Studies. Not only am I graduating early because of this program, but I have learned so much in the short time since I switched. This program has strengthened my interest in Psychology and Criminal Justice and because of this program, I was able to do an internship at Becket Family

(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 image by Dianne Lacourciere)

Service who as such then, employed me.  Everything that I have learned within this course and program, I will be taking with into my career and maybe even into my Master’s (if I decided to continue on). Because of IDS, I have a new perspective about education and I’m excited to continue my journey.



This Personal Learning Network Portfolio below is a collection of posts from my social media platform of Twitter. Throughout the semester, I’ve posted articles that were reacted to my field, have re-posted tweets from other classmates, and have shared my post throughout the course. I have followed my classmates on their journeys and provided feedback when necessary or even shown my excitement on their progress.


Compared to the beginning of the semester, I have gained three more followers compared to when I first started this with maybe five followers. I’ve been following 142 accounts now that consist of classmates, professors, scholars related to my field of interest, and even companies within my field that I hope to be apart of one day.

With my own Personal Learning Network, it connects me with fields that I’m interested in and keeps me aware of information I wouldn’t know about otherwise. Twitter has helped me stay engaged and kept me connected with people that have peaked my interested and hope to still follow even after this course is over.

This Personal Learning Network has educated me the importance of connected learning and kept me engaged on articles that are related to my program. Using Twitter helps me interact, express and learn through social media. This is a way to get more involved in my own academics and to be more knowledgeable in the my career-relevant area. With my Personal Learning Network, I can connect and stay aware of information that I wouldn’t know about without using Twitter.

At first, I was not interested in Twitter and barely used it even though I had an account. Introduction to Interdisciplinary Studies introduced me to the resources that I can use in my favor and now I have a better understanding how to improve in my future career after this experience. I don’t know if I would still use in the same way I’m using it now but I will keep it open and follow everything that is happening and also read articles that are relevant to what I want to do for a career.

Young teens join gangs seeking ‘family’ culture

This is an interesting Fox five article on why young teens are joining gangs today and that reasoning is because they are seeking a “family culture” that they may not be receiving at home.

Below is a video of a psychologist exampling his point of view of the matter.

Retrieved from:

I chose this as a post because since I’ve been doing research on youth and gangs, this news article was brought to my action and I believe is a great source to being awareness to the matter.

This article connects with my research because my audience is most likely going to be parents of youth that might be in a gang or parents who feel like there children are considering joining a gang. This fits well with my research because apart of me does feel like youth do join gangs because they are seeking that “family culture” but there many more factors as to why youth join gangs. I’ve had many stories of individuals who have joined and example why they have and its not just because of the seeking of “family culture”.


Applied Project


When I started to think about what I wanted to do for the applied project, my first thought was to get some youth involvement. My original idea was to hold a drive for necessary products such as, clothing, hygiene products, blankets, etc. I had said in an earlier post that this was interesting and important to me because because working with young men, I know how hard it is for them to ask or even tell us that they may be in need of things. I was going to go to different members within the community and ask for donations. My goal was to hold a drive and donate anything received in the drive to local shelters.

Then I started to think about more ideas after talking to peers and co-workers and I came up with the idea of helping people who were homeless by providing care kits (a bag of necessary products) and it would be donated to the Bridge House here in Plymouth, NH. With this idea, I would be able to involve youth more with the process of getting the products and making the bags. I also felt that this would be a great community service project for the young men that would volunteer to help. I also felt it would be a good idea overall because we would be helping people who don’t necessarily ask for help.

I started off  by going to the store to see what items I needed to create the care kits for homeless people. My goal was to create twenty bags (ten for males and ten for females) to donate to the Bridge House here in Plymouth, NH.

Image by Nicole Ntourntourekas

I started off with a list of items I would like to get; the list consisted of, male and female deodorant, soap bars, maxi pads (for the female bags), tooth paste, tooth brush, band aids, tissues, male and female razors, combs, cotton swabs, nail clippers and head bands (for females).

Image by Nicole Ntourntourekas

The male bags consisted of deodorant, soap bar, travel kit of tooth brush/tooth paste, 4 band aids, pack of tissues, pair of socks, razor, comb, 12 cotton swabs, nail clipper and an inspirational quote. With the female bag consisting of deodorant, soap bar, travel kit of tooth brush/ tooth paste, 4 band aids, pack of tissues, pair of socks, razor, comb, 12 cotton swabs, nail clipper, maxi-pads, hand band and an inspirational quote. Each bag received an inspirational quote because I thought it would be something nice to receive when someone is going through a rough time.

Image by Nicole Ntourntourekas

For over 200 items, the total cost was $96.00. Twenty bags were made with the help of two individuals from Mount Prospect Academy. These two young men volunteered their time for a good cause and were willing to help with everything. One of the young men went to the store and helped picked out everything while staying on budget. Once all the items were retrieved, the two young men formed an assembly line to create each of the bags and overall everything was done in good time. We felt very accomplished and overjoyed with the final product.

Image by Nicole Ntourntourekas

There were some left over items that one of the young men asked if he could have and I said, “of course seeing as you helped put this together.”

Two weeks ago, the care kits were delivered to the Bridge House and they were overjoyed to receive the bags because it was close to Thanksgiving time. I was told by the lady at the front desk that Thanksgiving was the busiest day of the year.

This is important to me because it’s going to help members of the community that need the extra help or some extra support in their time of need. This project helped me with getting youth/juveniles involved with community service and to me that’s a big step for them being willing to help out by volunteering. This giving me hope for the future that I would be able to get more youth involved him such activities.

How Much Do We Really Know About Juvenile Gangs?

As a college student who has been working hard to obtain a job that involves working closely with troubled youth on a daily basis, youth gangs are related to my profession.  While growing up in the rough streets of the New York, I encountered gang activity many times. Individuals in their early 20’s like myself, just entering middle school or high school, or even those who are younger have been exposed to the darker things in the world. Gangs can be seen and heard about everywhere in the music, social media, news, books and movies that we all consume daily. While there really isn’t a single definition used to perfectly describe youth gangs, the basic definition is: groups of young folks, ranging anywhere from their teen years to their mid-twenties, that cause trouble and wreak havoc on their friends, families, neighbors, and communities. The trouble these youth gangs commit can start as smaller crimes such as bullying, petty theft, or light property damage and escalate quickly to more violent and extreme crimes such as drug dealing, arson, arms dealing, robbing businesses and homes, and even murder. Looking at inner cities such as, Richmond, Boston, Chicago and Los Angeles, many youths seem to jump at the opportunity to join a gang and they have steadily gained more numbers into present day because they’re seeking a sense of structure in their lives and gangs seem to provide a sense of belonging.

Breaking down the demographic profile of youth gangs in American inner cities, those who tend to fall in and end up associating themselves into these gangs are mostly young males seeking structure. According to the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey, 90 percent of gang members are male. This could be due to the way gangs tend to be advertised to the general public with men constantly being the dangerous and driven top dogs in positions of wealth, power, fame, and business. 71 percent of these members are between the ages 15 and 24 with 16 percent of them the age of 14 or under. About 79 percent of the gang members are Hispanic or Black with a 14 percentage of them being white (” Gangs”, 2010). This high percentage of youths of color being involved has everything to do with the sickening way society treats and views folks of color and the lack of structure they are provided with. Racism, the poor and broken communities, lack of good education, the harsh thug and criminal stereotypes and even being called gangsters just because they may dress a certain way and have a different skin tone all contribute to this high percentage. People also tend to blame rap and hip-hop music – a mostly colored folk genre of music – for making the “gangsta” way of life seem entertaining, fulfilling, and wild through their colorful lyrics, and many music videos showing wealthy, respected, powerful colored folk involved with guns, blood, violence, alcohol, sexy women, and drugs.

Looking at the Demographic Profile of U.S. Youth Gang Members dated in 2004, the numbers seemed to increase a little with the number of males increasing by four percent. 86 percent are Hispanic and Black gang members, but the percentage of White gang members remained the same. The Demographic Profile of U.S. Youth Gang Members chart breaks down the ages to a longer scale; young adults (18 or older) at a percentage of 59 and juveniles (under the age of 18) at a percentage of 41. The difference in youth gang percentages between young adults and juveniles are not very big and seems rather worrisome. It feels like they may just continue with their gang association from their juvenile years into their young adult years.

There has been an increase of youth gang problems in the United States starting in the mid-1990s. In the 1970s, only 19 states reported having youth gang problems, but by the 21st century all the United States have reported to have a youth gang problem (Howell, 2010). Between 1984 and 1993, the number of homicides by juveniles increased by 169 percent, the biggest increase in gang crime ever recorded (“Gangs”, 2010). This was a time where youth gangs would try to copy the two powerful gangs, Bloods and Crips, or start working to be able to join them by committing acts and getting involved in situations no youth should take part in. Many inner cities started to see spikes in gang activity and death in youth gangs from the mid 80’s to the late 90’s. This also helped lead to a huge step in communities all over the U.S. receiving programs and funding to help keep the youth from getting involved in gangs and reduce the rising death toll.

The question that everyone was wondering at the time that youth gang involvement increased was, why were youth joining gangs? What was the appeal to become a part of something that was leading to our youth committing acts of violence and horror against one another, but also had such a high chance of death?

Joining a gang seems enticing to mostly males because of the structure that gangs provide and the sense of family belonging. According to the Los Angeles Police Department, there are five reasons as to why people join gangs. The number one is identity or recognition, being able to accomplish a level of status within the gang that a person can’t accomplish outside of such group. Number two is protection; some people join gangs because they live in the area that the gangs oversee. This would engage juveniles to join a gang because it “guarantees support in case of an attack and retaliation for transgressions” (“Why Young People Join Gangs”). Number three would be fellowship and brotherhood, meaning that a gang can feel like a family. Number four is intimidation. For example, this could be some members are forced into the gang because their family has or are a part of a gang already or because it’s the social norm within that neighborhood. Lastly criminal activity; this could be a person joining a gang in-order to benefit from any profit they might make (stealing drugs or weapons). The two most well-known gangs in the United States that youths either mingle with and even dream of joining when they get older, are the Blood and Crips. The youth feel these rival gangs will provide them with structure and a sense of belonging. It was believed in the late 1980s by public and law enforcement agencies that gangs were racially, ethnically segregated and organized fighting groups. This didn’t change until 1988, when a study of two gangs (Crips and Bloods) showed that the gangs had become highly organized and entrepreneurial. This study took place right around the time that drug trade interest increased, along with the increase of violence by members within gangs.

Looking at graphs and statistics provides a snapshot of a general understanding of youth gangs, their history, how they become affiliated with their groups, the dangerous acts they commit during their time involved, and what that kind of life can ultimately lead to. However, the best source of information and most optimal way to try and perceive youth gangs is through their personal stories. Starting with someone who joined a gang while they were in prison in 2003. Richard Gonzalez joined the Trinitarios for the whole time he served in prison and later become the leader in the Bronx and Manhattan for a time before being caught by police. Gonzalez made a plea that he would give the police an inside of the gang’s customs and ended up sending five people to prison for his testimony. In the meeting he had, Gonzalez said, “When you become a member of the Trinitarios, if you have any outstanding debts, they are paid for. If you have any problems with any individuals or any type of conflicts, they are resolved, whether it is diplomatically or with violence. These are the people that look out for you, that take care of you when you go to prison.” (Ransom, 2018)

According to Gonzalez in-order to be an official member of the Trinitarios gang, you would need a sponsor to join. New members receive a rule book, take an oath, and swear to abide by the gang’s constitution (Ransom, 2018). There is a weekly member fee of five dollars that is used for bail, weapons, parties, drugs, pampers, etc. This is done by attending a weekly chapter meeting and at the end of the meeting there is always a prayer, to which a former law enforcement official said, “There really is a sense of brotherhood”.

During Gonzalez’s testimony, he stated that there were layers of leadership; first, second, and third in command. Three of the members also serve as heads of security (which means they secure the gangs weaponry and maintain good standing with other gangs). There is a member that is the central committee who governs the chapters (meaning they are the “in charge of war”). “Soldiers” are ones that carry out orders and if there is a death, then that is an acceptable outcome. Heads of the gang keep soldiers in line (so if they’re not doing what their supposed to then the heads of the gang hand out fines and/ or beatings). The heads of the gang make sure that everything is in order. This includes hashing out any problems that occur within their own gang or with other gangs and discuss troubles in the weekly meetings (Ransom, 2018).

Chicago also has seen an increase of 25 percent of homicides cases regarding gangs which has been the highest rate in years (Smith, 2012). There has been interviews with people that have been in gangs in Chicago and how difficult it is to get out. You have the story of Jessica whose nickname is “Jussi Pooh”, who joined the Chicago gang, Black Disciples, because she was seeking a sense of love. Jessica, who is now 21, said in an interview, “ you need to find something else better to do to occupy your time because the streets don’t love you, they take away from the people who do…I joined a gang to be loved and I had to find out the hard way that streets don’t love you” (Smith, 2012).

Jessica’s involvement with gang life was spent with her trying to get “fast money” by stealing cars and drugs. “Only things the streets go to offer is money, death or incarceration—because they (gang members) don’t want to end up in jail, so they going to give you the gun and tell you to go out and shoot somebody”. Jessica stated while also saying, “Second, when it comes to the money, trying to make a fast dollar, you going to be out here doing some of everything.” (Smith, 2012). During this interview, Jessica told reporters that she is trying to turn her life around by going to school to become a prohibition officer and even goes to church on Sunday’s. Her main goal is to work on herself and bring a positive change to her life.

Damien, also known as “Pacman”, was only nine years old when he got involved with the Chicago Two-Six gang. Damien, 28 years old, is lucky to be alive considering he got shot six times leaving a rival gang neighborhood. Damien stated, “He thought I was flashing gang signs, you know, with the signs that I have (tattoos on his face) that he started pointing a gun at me with a read beam…all hell broke loose. He started shooting us. I got shot six times, in the stomach, in the thigh, the sides” (Smith, 2012). Damien has a long list of a crimes recorded dating back to when he was 17 years old when he was charged with his most serious offense. Damien has a 16-month son who he hopes never follows his footsteps. Damien hopes to rid himself of the gang lifestyle in the following years and pursue a career as a mechanic.

Deandre, known to his friends as “Dre” is at the time, a 20-year-old young man who was kicked out of school because of fighting. Deandre has been a part of the Chicago gang, Black P Stones, since 14-years-old. Deandre states, “I joined that gang to make my name well known and do something…just make my name known somewhere” (Smith, 2012). Deandre considered himself part of the gang, but in the back of his head he wanted to further his education and find a job. “It wasn’t really one event that made me change my mind…it was basically that I just decide all the things I did wasn’t making no sense. So, it was going to be me continue to do that and not go nowhere or me stepping up and trying to be a man, and trying to do something for my family, and trying to do something positive” (Smith, 2012). Deandre believes that for the gang violence to end, people must be given chances to succeed. With that in mind, Deandre wants to help people and open his own business because he loves to cook. “The crime will calm down if you all give my people opportunities…that’s all I got to say. Give people some opportunities out here. Don’t knock them because of who they are or how they dress or how they look. ‘Cause there’s people wat worse than I am out here” (Smith, 2012).

Lastly, you have Michael whose known as “puppet”. Michael joined the Two-Six gang at the age of 13 by getting beaten up as part of the initiation. Michael stated, “You got to take a beat down by your homies just to show them you’re tough…and either you’re in or you’re not. That’s it” (Smith, 2012). Michael grew up with her brother, sister and mother. He said he “didn’t have a father really”. This makes you wonder if having multiple siblings and one parent to try and do it all led to him wanting to join a gang to be noticed and really feel like he had a whole family? Maybe try to fill the void of not really having a dad by joining a gang and trying to find a place to fit in and feel whole?

When youth consider structure when joining a gang, they don’t consider risk factors. There are many risk factors to joining a gang. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, antisocial behavior can be a reason for an individual to join a gang. A child whose antisocial behavior increases is more likely to join a gang. Behaviors can include, alcohol or drug use, violence, aggression, etc. Alcohol and drug use are other factors because they greatly increase the likelihood of later gang involvement. Drugs are one of the easiest and quickest ways gangs make profit, while alcohol is the social and brotherhood/family bonding aspect. They are both also highly addicted substances that can lead to acts of violence and rage. Mental health problems can also increase the risk of youth joining gangs. Gang members in juvenile corrections facilities are often admitted because of “history of physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, psychiatric disturbances, post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive deficits, poor self-esteem, and other problems.” (Howell, 2010) Victimization is another reason for youth to join a gang. This can involve a child being a victim of abuse within his or hers home or neglect from parents. This can cause an individual to seek a “family culture” within a gang setting. Negative life events can also cause individuals (particularly boys) to join because they can feel like they joined a sense of control over their lives. This doesn’t necessarily mean that these risk factors will cause individual to join gangs, but it increases the likelihood that they mean join.

Digging deeper into risk factors, some family risk factors can come into play because of weakness in family structures, such as single-parent household, caretaker changes, and even multiple family changes. Poverty and possibly financial stress can be potential risk factors as well. Lack of supervision and control from parents – even losing a family bond – are all factors that can lead youth to join gangs. One major family risk factor is having a family member involved in a gang or criminal behavior which can easily lead to the youth following in their footsteps. (Howell, 2010).

According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, one of the strongest risk factors for gang membership is engaging with peers who are involved with delinquency. Being around peers that are aggressive during childhood and early adolescence is a strong risk factor for youth to join a gang. This goes along with living within a community that has very high gang activity. Youth can be influenced to join a gang just because they live in the neighborhood of nearby gangs. Negative conditions such as, greater level of criminal activity, access to firearms and drugs, abuse, poverty and loneliness can cause youth to be pressured to join a gang to have a sense of belonging and support.

According to the Juvenile Justice Bulletin of 1998, Decker and Van Winkle had viewed youth joining gangs in two ways; a pull and push effect. They stated that the “pull” to join a gang was the attractiveness of the gang. This attraction may seem questionable to some, but for many youths, they see it as an opportunity; a quick way to get everything they seem to believe they want and need to succeed in life. Being at that young age and in an easily impressionable state with the constant stress of wanting to fit in and be in with the “cool crowd”, some youths find it difficult to resist such an offer. These opportunities once seized can bring them money, power, fame, protection, friends, women, and status. All very attractive and rather enjoyable things to many people – especially young people who want to be “cool” and “respected” among their peers. However, the methods of ceasing these opportunities and becoming part of the “gang” include acts such as: selling drugs to make money, gaining and maintaining relationships and dangerous connections, keeping a strong and trustful family dynamic, and always doing whatever it takes to get the job done no matter what the cost without fear. The “push” was regarding the idea that youth were getting involved with gangs because of friends and/ or family that were already in a gang. Peer pressure and living up to family expectations are unfortunate occurrences that can push many young people into joining a gang – even if it’s against their wishes. Another reason for “push” is the area in which the youth may live, this could be the individual believing joining a gang is the norm within his or her community and is “just the way of life”. (“Why Do Youth Join Gangs?”, 1998).

Inner cities like Boston and Richmond created prevention programs in-order to decrease the amount of youth involvement in gangs. In 1990, in Boston, MA, because of the increase of gang violence, the community created a strategy for at-risk youth in-order to prevent them from considering joining a gang. This led to interventions and gun control laws to be enforced. Because of this “program” youth homicides dropped from 80 percent from 1900 to 1995. Salinas, CA experienced the same as Boston, MA but with a 200 percent increase of homicides from 1984 to 1994. After receiving federal funding, the city created programs which resulted in a decrease of 23 percent, and the homicide level fell by 62 percent (“Gangs”, 2010).

According to the OJJDP’s gang reduction program, Richmond, Virginia created a gang reduction and intervention program that targets suburban-type communities of single-family homes and apartments. These communities have had an increase of diversity and have also increased in gang activity. The prevention activities of this program are aimed to families of youth who are at risk of becoming involved in gang and delinquent activities. Some of the activities provided are; prenatal and infancy support, one-stop resource center, class action summer camp, English as a second language for Hispanic residents, and gang awareness training to community and service providers. The invention activities within the program are supported by an intervention team is involve case-management activities that include street outreach (supporting youth already involved with gangs) with the hopes to provide an alternative to gang membership. These activities include; role modeling and mentoring, mental health and substance abuse programs, truancy and dropout prevention programs, community service projects, and even tattoo removal (“Best Practices To Address Community Gang Problems: OJJDP’s Comprehensive Gang Model”, 2010). They go to the root of the problem and provide youth with structure in a different way other than gang involvement.

Most gang members in the United States are young males and males of color, this is because of possible situational backgrounds. As seen in Chicago and Los Angeles, youth join gangs because gangs provide a sense of structure that they are not receiving at home or in their community. In-order to prevent gang involvement, we can bring more awareness to youth through prevention programs such as the ones in Boston and Richmond, that provide such information. This could include providing at-risk youth with resources that can help them with their basic needs and help resolve any family related issues that would prevent them from joining gangs.


Akinsanya, S., & Mora, L. (2016, December 08). My life in street gangs. Retrieved from

Best Practices To Address Community Gang Problems: OJJDP’s Comprehensive Gang Model. (2010, October). Retrieved from

“Gangs.” Gale Encyclopedia of American Law, edited by Donna Batten, 3rd ed., vol. 5, Gale, 2010, pp. 32-37. Gale Virtual Reference Library

Green, E. (2016, May 12). Youths and the gang life: Their stories, in their words. Retrieved from

Howell, J. C. (2010, December). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Retrieved from

Ransom, J., & Baker, A. (2018, July 18). Inside the Trinitarios: How a Gang Feud Led to the Death of a Teenager. Retrieved from

Smith, C., Abbey, J., & Rosenbaum, M. (2012, October 12). Chicago Gang Life: Gang Members Talks About Life on the Streets, Heartache. Retrieved from

Why Do Youth Join Gangs? (1998, August). Retrieved from

Why Young People Join Gangs. (n.d.). Retrieved from






Update on Applied Project

(images by Nicole Ntourntourekas)


1: Male deodorant (Qty 10)

2: Female deodorant (Qty 10)

3: Soap bars (Qty 21)

4: Maxi pads (Qty 32)

5: Traveling kit of tooth paste/tooth brush (Qty 20)

6: Band aids (Qty 50 count)

7: Tissues (Qty 21)

8: Socks (Qty 21 pairs)

9: Male razors (Qty 10)

10: Female razors (Qty 10)

11: Combs (Qty 24)

12: Cotton Swabs (Qty 250)

13: Nail clippers (Qty 20)

14: Hand bands (for females) (Qty 12)

Male bags received:

Deodorant, soap bar, travel kit of tooth brush/tooth paste, 4 band aids, pack of tissues, pair of socks, razor, comb, 12 cotton swabs, nail clipper and an inspirational quote.

Female bags received:

Deodorant, soap bar, travel kit of tooth brush/ tooth paste, 4 band aids, pack of tissues, pair of socks, razor, comb, 12 cotton swabs, nail clipper, maxi pads, hand band and an inspirational quote.

Total Bags:

10 for males and 10 for females 🙂

Research Article Outline

(CC BY 2.0 image by Daniel Wehner)

Introduction: Will consist of facts/ statics from early 1990-1999.

Juvenile Court Placement of Adjudicated Youth, 1900-1999;  is a fact sheet from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. There was 639,000 adjudicated delinquency cases in 1999, 24 percent of those resulted in out-of-home placements. This could include placements such as, residential treatment centers, juvenile corrections facility, foster care, or group homes. 62 percent of these cases result in probation. 10 percent of these cases result in some other disposition such as, fines, community service, restitution, or some form of treatment agencies.  There are also 4 percent of these cases that are release with disposition without sanction (a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule) (Puzzanchera, 2003).

There are charts that show the different percentages from 1990, 1995 and 1999. These show the total adjudicated delinquency cases; 1990 there was 32 percent, 1995 there were 27 percent and in 1999 there were 24 percent. These are broken down into categories of most serious; person, property, drugs, and public order. These numbers range from 22 percent to 38 percent. There is also gender; ranging from 19 percent to 33 percent. Age at referral going from age 12 until 16 or older; ranging from 15 percent to 33 percent. There is also race; broken down to white, black and other. Lastly, predisposition detention; broken down to detained to not detained (Puzzanchera, 2003).

According to this fact sheet, placement cases grew 24 percent between 1990 to 1999. The number rose from 124,000 in 1990 to 155,200 in 1999. The number of drug offense was the largest percentage at 73 percent (Puzzanchera, 2003).

Juveniles in Residential placement, 2013 by Sarah Hockenberry; is a national survey that details the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in public and private residential facilities in every state. According to this document, between 1997 and 1999, youth in confinement increased about 4 percent. By 2013, the number has decreased 50 percent being the lowest level seen. These numbers “relative declines from 1997 to 2013 were the greater for committed youth than for detained youth.” (Hockenberry, 2016)

Interesting facts about placement facilities:

-Males tend to stay in facilities longer than females

-Minority youth accounted for 68 percent of youth in residential placement in 2013.

-The national detention rate for black youth nearly six times the rate for white youth, and their commitment rate was more than four times the rate for white youth.

-Of all juveniles who were detained, 87 percent were in public facilities. For committed juveniles, 59 percent were in public facilities.

-Females account for 14 percent of offenders in residential placement.

-In 2013, 38% of females in residential placement were younger than 16, compared with 30% of males.


Mental Health Services in Juvenile Correctional Facilities: A National Survey of Clinical Staff,  talks about the best practices in providing mental health services to youth with juvenile correctional facilities. This article examines the provision of facilities-wide mental health programming, individual, group, and family counseling, and case management services. This article also examines the staff involvement within these services as well as the evidence-based interventions provided (Swank, 2016).

According to Mental Health Services in Juvenile Correctional Facilities: A National Survey of Clinical Staff, in October of 2013, there were 54,148 youth classified as juvenile offenders who were being held in residential placement (OJJDP). With that being said, compared to the general population, three times more adjudicated youth are being diagnosed with a mental health disorder. 70 percent of youth who are incarcerated met the criteria for at least one mental health diagnosis; 79 percent were met with criteria of multiple counts of a mental health diagnoses; along with 69 percent met the criteria for three or more diagnoses (Swank, 2016).

Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities; is a snapshot of multiple charts that tell us different data about facilities. The first chart is the percentage of facilities screening all youth for service needs has increased since 2000. Suicide risk in 2000 was 61 percent compared to 2016 with an increase to 93 percent. Education needs in 2000 was 78 percent compared to 2016 which increased to 88 percent. Substance abuse in 2000 was at 59 percent and in 2016 was 74 percent. Along with mental health needs, in 2000 was 47 percent and in 2016 was 60 percent (“Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities“).

There are also charts for facilities that are more likely to screen youth for services needs within one week of admission in 2016 than in 2000; the general, the proportion of facilities offering onsite residential treatment services that have increased since 2000; etc. (“Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities“).

Systemic Self-Regulation: A Framework for Trauma-Informed Services in Residential Juvenile Justice Programs, addresses trauma-informed services within juvenile justice residential programs. According to the article, most youth detained in juvenile justice facilities have history of exposure to psychological trauma (Ford, 2013).

-92 percent of a sample of detained youth had experienced at one type of psychological trauma at point in their lives.

-50 percent (averaging at age 14) had been exposed to six or more potentially traumatic adversities by the time of detention.

-Juvenile justice programs have long struggled with the best practices for addressing the needs of detained youth.

Conclusion: Will consist of wrapping up statics and giving an overall of the topic 🙂



Update on Research Paper and Applied Project

Research Paper:

(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 image by Earl)

My original plan for my Research Paper was going to be looking into organizations such as, DCYF, ACS, and DCF. After further research I have decided to actually look into the rates of Juvenile Justice within the years. This is looking into residential placements and the rates throughout the years. After doing a bunch of research, I have realized that the rates have gone down of youth within placements but have also noticed that numbers have increased according to the level of the crime committed in-order to get placed. This could of been stealing, drug use, etc. I’ve also decided to look into other states instead of just looking in New Hampshire.

Applied Project:

(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 image by Direct Relief)

By the end of this week I will begin making Care Kits for homeless people in-order to donate them to the Bridge House. I have talked to one of my students that I work with at Becket and he seemed very interested to be involved with the process. He even suggested that he would like to be apart of the buying process as well. To get this rolling, I will be making a list of things that would go in each individual Kit. The next step will be buying the products (which will be happening on Friday) and start the process of making the kits. Next week, I will be donating them to the Bridge House and then follow up with them to see if they have been helpful.


# 1:

Puzzanchera, C.M. (2003, Spetember). Juvenile Court Placement of Adjudicated Youth, 1900-1999. Retrieved from

In this fact sheet from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1990-1999), Charles M. Puzzanchera talks about the one in four adjudicated delinquency cases resulting in out-of-home placement. Puzzanchera states that there were 639,000 adjudicated delinquency cases in 1999, 24 percent of those resulted in out-of-home placements. The purpose of this fact sheet is to bring awareness on the percentages delinquent cases. The tone of the author is very professional and not biased, it’s simply stating facts.


Hockenberry, S. (2016, May). Juveniles in Residential Placements, 2013. Retrieved from

This is a national survey that details the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in public and private residential facilities in every state. Hockenberry goes detail about the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in the private and public residential facilities in every state. The purpose of this national survey is to compare the differences in each state. This is to show whether or not the numbers are increasing to decreasing depending on public vs. private. The tone of the author is very professional and well informed.


Swank, J., & Gagnon, J. (2016). Mental Health Services in Juvenile Correctional Facilities: A National Survey of Clinical Staff. Journal of Child & Family Studies25(9), 2862–2872.

This article talks about the best practices in providing mental health services to youth with juvenile correctional facilities. Swank and Gagnon examines the provision of facilities-wide mental health programming, individual, group, and family counseling, and case management services. The purpose of the article is to state what is working within juvenile correctional facilities and what’s not working. The tone of the authors is professional and unbiased with lots of informal sources.


Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities. Retrieved from

This is a snapshot of multiple charts that tell us different data about facilities. This snap shot shows us multiple different charts with different percentages that range from suicide risk to substance abuse. The purpose of this snapshot is to being us awareness of the differences in many years and the many different issues that are involved with delinquency. The tone of this is professional and informative.

#5: Ford, J., & Blaustein, M. (2013). Systemic Self-Regulation: A Framework for Trauma-Informed Services in Residential Juvenile Justice Programs. Journal of Family Violence28(7), 665–677.

This article addresses trauma-informed services within juvenile justice residential programs. Ford and Blaustein do a good job at exampling how most youth detained in juvenile justice facilities have history of exposure to psychological trauma. The purpose of this article is to inform people of the percentages of differences in trauma among many different ages. The tone of this article is professional and informative.


When Neglected Children Become Adolescents

(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 image by Misha Maslennikov)

I came across this article when I was doing research for another class. The reason I stopped to read it was because of my job. I’ve heard many stories about how the kids I work with are neglected or the idea that they don’t talk to their families. When Neglected Children Become Adolescents, is an article from the Boston Children’s Hospital and it talks about a study that was done with children in Romanian orphanages and their story about how they were separated by their family. This article also speaks of the idea of when children are their parents are separated (usually when migrating at the U.S. border), because the children are very young, they usually end up in shelters. While in these shelters, the children go through stress, a sense of neglect and minimal social and cognitive stimulation. The children often feel a sense of abandonment. This article talks about the long-tern deprivation and separation anxiety from childhood to adolescence.

APA Citation:

Boston Children’s Hospital. (2018, September 27). When neglected children become adolescents: Study of children in Romanian orphanages tells cautionary tale about family separation. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 11, 2018 from

Link to article: