Introduction: Will consist of facts/ statics from early 1990-1999.
Juvenile Court Placement of Adjudicated Youth, 1900-1999; is a fact sheet from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. There was 639,000 adjudicated delinquency cases in 1999, 24 percent of those resulted in out-of-home placements. This could include placements such as, residential treatment centers, juvenile corrections facility, foster care, or group homes. 62 percent of these cases result in probation. 10 percent of these cases result in some other disposition such as, fines, community service, restitution, or some form of treatment agencies. There are also 4 percent of these cases that are release with disposition without sanction (a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule) (Puzzanchera, 2003).
There are charts that show the different percentages from 1990, 1995 and 1999. These show the total adjudicated delinquency cases; 1990 there was 32 percent, 1995 there were 27 percent and in 1999 there were 24 percent. These are broken down into categories of most serious; person, property, drugs, and public order. These numbers range from 22 percent to 38 percent. There is also gender; ranging from 19 percent to 33 percent. Age at referral going from age 12 until 16 or older; ranging from 15 percent to 33 percent. There is also race; broken down to white, black and other. Lastly, predisposition detention; broken down to detained to not detained (Puzzanchera, 2003).
According to this fact sheet, placement cases grew 24 percent between 1990 to 1999. The number rose from 124,000 in 1990 to 155,200 in 1999. The number of drug offense was the largest percentage at 73 percent (Puzzanchera, 2003).
Juveniles in Residential placement, 2013 by Sarah Hockenberry; is a national survey that details the characteristics of youth held for delinquency and status offenses in public and private residential facilities in every state. According to this document, between 1997 and 1999, youth in confinement increased about 4 percent. By 2013, the number has decreased 50 percent being the lowest level seen. These numbers “relative declines from 1997 to 2013 were the greater for committed youth than for detained youth.” (Hockenberry, 2016)
Interesting facts about placement facilities:
-Males tend to stay in facilities longer than females
-Minority youth accounted for 68 percent of youth in residential placement in 2013.
-The national detention rate for black youth nearly six times the rate for white youth, and their commitment rate was more than four times the rate for white youth.
-Of all juveniles who were detained, 87 percent were in public facilities. For committed juveniles, 59 percent were in public facilities.
-Females account for 14 percent of offenders in residential placement.
-In 2013, 38% of females in residential placement were younger than 16, compared with 30% of males.
Mental Health Services in Juvenile Correctional Facilities: A National Survey of Clinical Staff, talks about the best practices in providing mental health services to youth with juvenile correctional facilities. This article examines the provision of facilities-wide mental health programming, individual, group, and family counseling, and case management services. This article also examines the staff involvement within these services as well as the evidence-based interventions provided (Swank, 2016).
According to Mental Health Services in Juvenile Correctional Facilities: A National Survey of Clinical Staff, in October of 2013, there were 54,148 youth classified as juvenile offenders who were being held in residential placement (OJJDP). With that being said, compared to the general population, three times more adjudicated youth are being diagnosed with a mental health disorder. 70 percent of youth who are incarcerated met the criteria for at least one mental health diagnosis; 79 percent were met with criteria of multiple counts of a mental health diagnoses; along with 69 percent met the criteria for three or more diagnoses (Swank, 2016).
Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities; is a snapshot of multiple charts that tell us different data about facilities. The first chart is the percentage of facilities screening all youth for service needs has increased since 2000. Suicide risk in 2000 was 61 percent compared to 2016 with an increase to 93 percent. Education needs in 2000 was 78 percent compared to 2016 which increased to 88 percent. Substance abuse in 2000 was at 59 percent and in 2016 was 74 percent. Along with mental health needs, in 2000 was 47 percent and in 2016 was 60 percent (“Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities“).
There are also charts for facilities that are more likely to screen youth for services needs within one week of admission in 2016 than in 2000; the general, the proportion of facilities offering onsite residential treatment services that have increased since 2000; etc. (“Service availability increased in juvenile residential placement facilities“).
Systemic Self-Regulation: A Framework for Trauma-Informed Services in Residential Juvenile Justice Programs, addresses trauma-informed services within juvenile justice residential programs. According to the article, most youth detained in juvenile justice facilities have history of exposure to psychological trauma (Ford, 2013).
-92 percent of a sample of detained youth had experienced at one type of psychological trauma at point in their lives.
-50 percent (averaging at age 14) had been exposed to six or more potentially traumatic adversities by the time of detention.
-Juvenile justice programs have long struggled with the best practices for addressing the needs of detained youth.
Conclusion: Will consist of wrapping up statics and giving an overall of the topic 🙂